Linux

fsck Explained

Why Inconsistencies Might Occur Every working day hundreds of files might be created, modified, and removed. Each time a file is modified, the operating system performs a series of file system updates. These updates, when written to the disk reliably, yield a consistent file system. When a user program does an operation to change the file system, such as a… Read more →

How to do SCP from one EC2 Instance to another EC2 Instance

Nowadays, many websites are being hosted on cloud (Amazon Web Services) instead of traditional dedicated/shared Linux servers. Programmers who are using “scp” command to copy data from one Linux server to other Linux server are now facing issues to use same “scp” command for two ec2 instances/servers of AWS. The main reason behind this is, while using “scp” command, it… Read more →

Linux Server Memory Issues

Some unexpected behaviour on server side may at times be caused by system resource limitations. Linux by its design aims to use all of the available physical memory as efficiently as possible, in practice Linux kernel follows a basic rule that a page of free RAM is wasted RAM. The system holds a lot more in RAM than just application… Read more →

Linux ate my RAM!!!

What’s going on? Linux is borrowing unused memory for disk caching. This makes it looks like you are low on memory, but you are not! Everything is fine! Why is it doing this? Disk caching makes the system much faster and more responsive! There are no downsides, except for confusing newbies. It does not take memory away from applications in… Read more →

How To Configure Chroot Environments

Introduction There are many instances when you may wish to isolate certain applications, user, or environments within a Linux system. Different operating systems have different methods of achieving isolation, and in Linux, a classic way is through a chroot environment. In this guide, we’ll discuss how to setup an isolated environment using chroot in order to create a barrier between… Read more →

Linux Server Memory Issues

Linux Server Memory Issues Some unexpected behaviour on server side may at times be caused by system resource limitations. Linux by its design aims to use all of the available physical memory as efficiently as possible, in practice Linux kernel follows a basic rule that a page of free RAM is wasted RAM. The system holds a lot more in… Read more →

Rsync explained

Rsync (Remote Sync) is a most commonly used command for copying and synchronizing files and directories remotely as well as locally in Linux/Unix systems. With the help of rsync command you can copy and synchronize your data remotely and locally across directories, across disks and networks, perform data backups and mirroring between two Linux machines. This article explains 10 basic… Read more →

The Differences Between MBR and GPT partitions

f you have dabbled with your hard disk and is always doing formatting and partitioning, you will surely come across the term “MBR” and “GPT”. This is especially evident when you are dual-booting your Mac and faced with the problem of having to switch from GPT to MBR. You probably are wondering, what are the differences between MBR and GPT… Read more →

Memory Management

Memory Management The memory management subsystem is one of the most important parts of the operating system. Since the early days of computing, there has been a need for more memory than exists physically in a system. Strategies have been developed to overcome this limitation and the most successful of these is virtual memory. Virtual memory makes the system appear… Read more →